Technical Articles

VIBRATED BULK DENSITY USING SEMI-AUTOMATED DEVICE: SIMPLIFYING SAMPLE PREPARATION WHILE IMPROVING ACCURACY AND PRECISION
Jignesh Panchal and Jeffrey Rolle, A J Edmond Company, Presented at Presented at the Electrode Technology for Aluminum Production, TMS 2012, March 2012.

Vibrated Bulk Density (VBD) of calcined petroleum coke is widely utilized as one measure of quality and is useful for quantifying binder demand in the anode production process of the aluminum reduction industry. ASTM D 4292-10 is one of the methods used widely by the carbon and aluminum reduction industries to measure VBD. Recently the carbon producer and consumer industries have jointly worked together to increase the competence and benefit of this method. Geopyc is a semi-automated device that potentially yields better precision compared to traditional vibrator device specified in D 4292. This paper presents an innovative use of the Geopyc instrument in measuring VBD, the results of which correlate well with D 4292; especially to the 28x48 Tyler Mesh size fractions. This novel sample preparation does not involve complicated roll crushing steps as specified in the ASTM method(s) and thus simplifies the method while improving the accuracy and precision.

STUDY OF PETROLEUM COKE USED AS REDUCING AGENT IN IRON ORES PROCESSING
Jun M. Lee, Jeffrey G. Rolle, James J. Baker A. J. Edmond Co., 1530 West 16' Street, Long Beach CA 90813, Marcos de Albuquerque Contrucci, Edmar Saul Marcheze TECNORED LTDq Rua Georges Smimow 305/306 Bairro Boansta, CEP 89206-740, Joinville, SC Brad, James W. Ramming Tecnored Technologies Incorporated, 100 First Stamford Place, Stamford, CT 06902

A petroleum coke with a high sulfur/sulphur content (approximately 7.0 wt %) was tested as reducing agent in iron ores processing. Proprietary TECNORED pellets were prepared by blending of iron ore fines, petroleum coke fines and other additives (binders, fluxing agents, etc.) through a wet pelletizing process. A pilot-scale reaction system was assembled for the reaction performance study with the petroleum coke and TECNORED pellets, which consists of a packed-bed Inconel reactor with temperature controller and programmer, air, argon and nitrogen gas supply system, effluent product gas sampling system, and gas analyzers. Five screening tests were recently performed and experimental results are presented.

BIAS TESTING OF MECHANICAL AUTOMATIC SAMPLLNG SYSTEM INSTALLED AT LAXT FOR LOADING EXPORT COALS AND PETROLEUM COKES
Jun M. Lee, Jeffrey G. Rolle, James J. Baker, Robert Llerena, A. J. Edmond Co., 1530 West l6th Street, Long Beach CA 90813
Jim Holland, Los Angeles Export Terminal, Inc., San Pedro, CA 90731
Robert White, Pacific Carbon Services, Inc., San Pedro, CA 90731
Wendell Cook, Hall-Buck Marine, Inc., San Pedro, CA 90731

A new modem LAXT (Los Angeles Export Terminal) facility was built in September 1997 and has been operational for export shipment of coals and petroleum cokes. Recently on March 16-18, 1998, bias testing of the mechanical automatic sampling system, which is installed at LAXT for representative sampling, was performed by A. J. Edmond Company to evaluate the performance of the mechanical sampler. The bias test was carried out loading 86600 metric tons of coal in MN Noshiro Ma. Thirty sets of system (crushed), reference (stopped-belt) and secondary cutter reject (backup) samples were collected for bias analysis. Paired test batch design is employed for sample collection procedure and Walsh averages, non-parametric method is selected for statistical analysis. Test batch size was 2670 metric tons and target coal transfer rate was 4500 metric-torn. Coal characteristics analyzed for the bias test are moisture and dry ash content. In addition size consist analysis will be performed, if necessary to identify sources causing biases. Based on the statistical analysis, bias test results are presented.

QUANTIFICATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF NICKEL ON REDUCTION CELL ANODES
 Max Casada, Venco, P.O. Box 577, State Route 2, South Moundsville, WV 26041; Jeff Rolle, A.J. Edmond Co., 1530 West 16th Street, Long Beach, CA 90813; Chris Eppig, Dr. Steve Paspek, BP Oil Company, 4440 Warrensville Center Road, Cleveland, OH 44128-2837; Zeno DeMori, ORMET, P.O. Box 176/State Route 7, Hannibal, OH 43931; Gary Force, BP Oil Company, 200 Public Square, Cleveland, OH 44114; Jaime Mora, Juan Turpial, Venalum, CVG Industria Venezolana De Aluminio, C.A., Zona Industrial Matanzas, Estado Bolivar, Venezuela; David Hester, Conoco Inc., 1000 South Pine, Ponca City, OK 74602; Mirna Chirinos, Francisco Perez, Alcasa, CVG Aluminio Del Caroni S.A., Zona Industrial Matanzas, Estado Bolivar, Venezuela; Julio Velasco, Venco URB Villa Asia, Calle Bombay Manz. 27, #10, Puerto Ordaz, Bolivar, Venezuela; Eli Epstein, Don Pirolo, Venco, 600 N. Dairy Ashford, Houston, TX 77252

The concentration of various metallic compounds in crude oils and in the resulting petroleum coke has continued an upward trend as crude reserves continue to change and tend toward being increasingly heavy and sour. Traditionally labeled as a catalyst, nickel has been included with vanadium in the evaluation of its effects on anode reactivity. In 1995, a Task Force was formed to quantify the influence of nickel on reduction cell anodes as existing information in the literature did not address specifically the affects of varying concentrations of nickel on anodes. The task force prepared resid with identical properties with the exception of nickel content. These resids were then coked, calcined, and formed into anodes in as identical a process as possible. Finally, the anodes were baked and tested to determine the effects on their performance characteristics. The results and conclusions drawn from this process will be communicated in this paper.

Studies of the Impact of Vanadium and Sodium on the Air Reactivity of Coke and Anodes, Authors Jeffrey Rolle and Yen Hoang, Presented at the 1995 Light Metals Carbon Technology Session, March 1995.

Many significant studies have been published which examined the impact of vanadium and sodium on the air reactivity of cokes and anodes. Most studies have compared different cokes with differing levels of vanadium and sodium to make inferences about their impact on coke and anode quality. The studies discussed in this paper involve a single coke with different level of vanadium and sodium (effectively holding other variables constant). Inferences drawn are therefore based on direct responses to variable studied.

Reduced levels of vanadium were achieved by hydrotreating coker feedstock. Increased levels of vanadium were achieved by spiking coke feedstock with organometallic vanadyl porphyin compound. Sodium levels were affected in variety of ways. Results indicate that vanadium has less impact on air reactivity then previously published and that sodium is approximately five time more leveraging then vanadium on both coke and anode air reactivity.

Historical and Future Challenges with the Vibrated Bulk Density Test Methods for Determining Porosity of Calcined Petroleum Coke:
Jignesh Panchal; Mark Wyborney; Jeffrey Rolle; A.J.Edmond Company, Presented at the Electrode Technology for Aluminum Production, Petroleum Coke VBD session at TMS 2011, March 2011.

Over several decades, calcined petroleum coke producers and the aluminum industry have been using various techniques such as Vibrated Bulk Density (VBD), Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP), and Mercury Apparent Density to predict the porosity of calcined petroleum coke. Better knowledge of the coke porosity allows a more accurate estimation of coke quality and pitch demand for fabricating anode of optimum performance. Industry has had limited success in accurately predicting porosity using the existing VBD methods. Direct measurement of porosity by MIP is an alternative way to measure porosity accurately. Currently there is limited correlation between VBD and MIP. Any improvements to the VBD test method should demonstrate improved correlation to the results obtained from MIP. This paper covers the historical and traditional approach to predict calcined coke porosity, correlation study of VBD test method and porosity by MIP, and input to the development of superior test methods to meet Industry requirements.

 




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